How to assess and monitor ecological quality in freshwaters - Helsinki, October 23th-25th, 2003.

Poster : Selecting potential type-specific lakes of reference in implementing the E.U. Water Framework Directive. Garcia XF, Brauns M, Pusch M, Walz N.


The Water Framework Directive (WFD-Directive 2000/60/EU) imposes a new method for the ecological assessment of lakes in Europe. This method proposes to compare actual ecological conditions with type-specific reference conditions previously described for each type of lake. However, the current strong ecological degradation of most of the aquatic ecosystems in Europe makes undisturbed lakes of reference difficult to locate. This is especially true for the riverine lakes, which are connected with a river network.

According to recent discussion in official E.U. working groups, lakes of reference should be defined as the less disturbed as possible for a given type, and not only as oligotrophic lakes. Consequently a statistical method has to be established which enables to identify such reference lakes. In this poster, we present a multivariate method developed using a data-base of benthic macroinvertebrates collected in 31 lakes from Brandenburg (North-Eastern Germany).